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Chinese Jingdezhen porcelain marks and history

Chinese Jingdezhen porcelain marks and history

Qing period emperor porcelain marks

Guyue xuan marks

Tang Zhai inscriptions

>eight modern artists of Jingdezhen

>Water Point Peach Blossoms

The history and porcelain in China from the Qing Dynasty to the present.

The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) was the last dynasty in China and its rule lasted around 270 years. While the dynasty itself was ruled by the Manchus, its cultural policies respected the traditional culture of the Han Chinese and thus did not destroy their culture. This meant that they respected porcelain works and the porcelains of this era is still preserved as one of the world's greatest works.

This Qing Dynasty began when the third emperor 順治帝 Shunzhi rose from current Shenyang City in Liaoning province to in reality defeat the Ming Dynasty. He changed the year to the Shunzhi era and the capital to Beijing and increased his territory and created an aristocratic system. The nation state was established around a central government and the idea of "enrich the Country, Strengthen the armed Forces". it was a rare time in the Chinese history to be led by good rulers successively and they had good policies which differs greatly from the previous Ming Dynasty.

While emperor Shunzhi struggled for decades after being crowned emperor to tackle uprising from former Ministers from the Ming Dynasty and the southern region, he gained control over the Jiangxi province including 景徳鎮 Jingdezhen in 1645, and appointed 李翔鳳 Li Xiangfeng as the provincial governor and worked hard to restoration of Jingdezhen, had porcelain be given as offering from 1651, and by year eleven it became an official Royal Factory (a kiln where expensive porcelains under the order of the government are made) under the Qing Dynasty.

However, most of the Potters were old and worked from the Ming and Wanli periods, Tianqi, and Chongzhen periods and their apprentices. So, the works were not so different from the end of the Ming era, and the costs were so minuscule that it was covered by the local governmental fee every year. 20 years later, under 康熙帝 Kangxi emperor, the Royal Factories were reconstructed and popularized porcelain making and led to the birth of Qing Guan ware masterpieces.

The 4th emperor Kangxi was a truly great ruler and resided over 61 years. During his rule, he appointed 朗廷極 Langham as a ceramic officer, and set the future direction of the Qing Guan ware, and he was both the Jiangxi provincial governor and ceramic officer for 7 years between 1705 and 1712
and created the masterpiece called the Lang Kiln. This dark red porcelain is called Lang Kiln red, cow blood red, and red jewels in Chinese, and cinnabar in Japanese, and it is famous to this day.

From the French king Louis to the aristocrats from Britain, Netherlands, and Germany, they all invested heavily, and it is apparent that they collected the masterpieces in the Kangxi era through the east india Company from based on written accounts, and much of the works are told on as master pieces to this day.

When Kangxi emperor died after 61 years in power (1662~1722), the fourth emperor 雍正帝 Yongzheng took over. He was a prince for a long time, so his reign only lasted 13 years (1723~1735) but he was passionate towards art and in 1727, he appointed 年希尭 Niyang Xi Yao as chief customs inspector at Huai’an and a ceramic officer of the Royal Factories. The following year he appointed Tang Ying as the supporter and attempted to improve the quality of the Guan ware.
Tang Ying erected a famous stone monument called “事宜紀略 Shiyi ji lue” in the winter of 1734, it has detailed descriptions on the name of porcelains and it is known as an indicator for future generations.
Tang Ying stayed as a ceramic officer when 乾隆帝 Qianlong emperor took over, and under his leadership he creates古月軒磁器 Gu Yue Xuan Porcelain.

The 6th emperor Qianlong was crowned at 25 years of age, and he modelled his policies to that of his grandfather, Kangxi emperor. Thus, he was known for his wise leadership and his reign lasted 60 years (1736-1795), resulting in a truly peaceful era. as his grandfather, Kangxi emperor ruled for 61 years, he abdicated after 60 years in power and passed the crown to his son, 嘉慶帝 Jiaqing emperor, and he himself became emperor emeritus and passed away at 88 years of age.
additionally, at this time, trade with western countries accelerated and China gained great wealth from exporting large amounts of silk and porcelains. as a result, the economy flourished and especially in relations to porcelains, techniques developed in the Kangxi and Yongzheng eras, and became the golden age of unparalleled elaborate porcelains.

Following the Qianlong era, Jiaqing emperor’s rule lasted 25 years (1796~1820), and at Jingdezhen its techniques and colors did not change so much due to the effect of the Qianlong era, and the Jiaqing Guan wares were maintained.
During the last years of the Jiaqing era, the country started to weaken. on top of that, external pressure from Britain’s invasion to the east increased financial pressure on the Royal Factory and the decline in quality in the porcelains are apparent. For instance, the clay used is rough and the base of the white glaze is forming small creases, and the techniques of the five colors and powder pigment declines. There is an increase in porcelains that are made to cater to Western tastes and made specifically to export.

The next 道光帝 Daoguang emperor ruled for 30 years (1821~1850) and he enjoyed literature and encouraged arts and crafts there was a slight revival of the porcelain industry. However, in 1840 the start of the opium War led to the invasion of countries such as Britain, opening of the ports in Guangdong, Fuzhou, and Xiamen, and Hong Kong to be ceded. Nonetheless, activities in Jingdezhen continued to the same degree since the former era and left wonderful porcelains such as 慎徳堂 Shen Yutang.
also, in this era, there were many copies of the porcelain works of the Ming 宣徳 Xuande era and 成化 Chenghua era arabesque pattern dyed porcelains, and most of the surviving copy works were from this time.

in the 咸豊帝 Xianfeng and 同冶帝 Tongzhi era (1851~1874), there was the Taiping Rebellion in 1851, was forced to sign the humiliating the Treaty of Tianjin after losing to the combined forces of the British and the French in 1858, and Beijing was invaded in 1871 leading to the burning down of the emperor’s palace, the old summer palace, and around 200 architectures resulting in countless artefact being looted. even the Royal Factory in Jingdezhen was destroyed by 洪秀全 Hong Xiuquan of the long queue clan, and it was forced to temporary stop all activities, but around half of it was restored by 李鴻章 Li Hongzhang who promoted the restoration of the Qing Dynasty and modernisation.

in the era between Tongzhi and Guangxu (1875~1908) the mother of Tongzhi, 西太后 empress Dowager Cixi took control as 光緒帝 Guangxu emperor was too young to rule. in 1894 there was the Sino-Japanese war and in 1900 Beijing was occupied and looted by the eight-Nation alliance force. Not only was the nation’s pride in tatters, but the state was financially bankrupt, and it was not the time for operating Guan wares. However, empress Dowager Cixi ordered potteries for the royal family and this led to increased activity for the Guan wares and this is where porcelain master pieces with the empress Dowager Cixi’s penname 大雅斉 Daya Qi inscribed onto it.
at this time, the potters who inherited the old traditional techniques who were working in the Royal Factory, went to private factories to support themselves and worked more there. There has been special focus on exports, and many were sent to Japan, but the unique aspect of this era is the sheer number of old antiques created.

The last era of the Qing Dynasty, the 宣統 Puyi era was very short and ended in three years, and the Republic of China was established. under the rule of the second President 袁世凱 Yuan Shikai, a small amount of potteries such as those with 居仁堂 Ju Rentang and 洪憲 Hong Xian era potteries were created. in the era of the Republic of China, Royal Factories were abolished, and a fraction of the porcelain industry became independent as private factories and continued its production at a limited quantity.

With the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (1949), the Royal Factory in Jingdezhen was reconstructed with the aim of creating Qing Guan wares by adopting the operation system by the Republic with the development of the systematization of the nation. Simultaneously, mass production for the general public was conducted and efforts were put to cater to export.

 

Qing period emperor porcelain marks

Porcelain ordered by the emperor was fired at Jingdezhen, and a crest with the emperor's name was written in kanji or seal engraved on the blue and white porcelain.

(大 Great 清 Qing dynasty 康熙 emperor Kangxi 年Year 製 Made)

大清康熙年製 da qing Kangxi nian zhi (1662-1722)

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大清雍正年製 da qing Yongzheng nian zhi (1723-1735)

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大清乾隆年製 da qing Qianlong nian zhi (1736-1795)

d-q-ng-qi-n-l-ng-ni-n-zh-1.jpg    d-q-ng-qi-n-l-ng-ni-n-zh-2.jpg


大清嘉慶年製 da qing Jiaqing nian zhi (1796-1820)

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大清道光年製 da qing Daoguang nian zhi (1820-1850)

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大清咸豊年製 da qing Xianfeng nian zhi (1851-1861)

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大清同治年製 da qing Tongzhi nian zhi (1862-1874)

douji15258.jpg    douji25469.jpg


大清光緒年製 da qing Guangxu nian zhi (1875-1908)

kosho14569.jpg


大清宣統年製 da qing Xuantong nian zhi (1909-1912)

 sento1654.jpg

 

古月軒 Guyue xuan 

Beijing's "琺瑯作Fa lang Zuo" is one of 28 "造辦処 Zaoban Chu" (workshops that produced the emperor's furnishings), and enamel paint was made there. Fa lang Zuo was established during the Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong dynasties when court painters were mobilized for the craft of ceramic paintings, and delicate and beautiful enamel paint called "古月軒 Guyue Xuan" was produced.
at Fa lang Zuo, only white porcelain fired in Jingdezhen was used, and it was painted and fired solely with the enamel paint color. 

Kangxi yu zhi 
康熙御製(1662-1722)

 

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Yongzheng nian zhi 
雍正年製 (1723-1735)

Yongzheng yu zhi 
雍正御製 (1723-1735)

yosei1236.jpg

yosei2587.jpg

   

Qianlong nian zhi 
乾隆年製 (1736-1795)

Qianlong yu zhi 
乾隆御製 (1736-1795)

568.jpg

kenryo2568.jpg

unlike other blue and white ceramics that are inscribed with symbols, these articles feature kanji handwritten using enamel.

 

The names of the head potters involved in porcelain production at the official kilns were never recorded. Chinese ceramics established a division of labor early on, so craftsmen worked in subdivided production processes and did not record their names. even the heads of the Ming dynasty official kilns rarely left their names. However, the names of official kiln supervisors started to be recorded in the Qing dynasty.

唐英 Tang Ying

  touei.jpg    a man from Fengtian. as a gifted potter related to the Jingdezhen kiln, he was the foremost supervisor in the Qing dynasty who led the same kiln for 20 years, excluding 2 years, from Yongzheng 6 (1728) to Qianlong 21 (1756). Gifted at imitating the enamel of each era, he developed new techniques that drew on oriental methods such as enamel painting, oriental Wujin glaze, oriental violet technique, black background with white flower, white background with gold outline, yo-hen, and others. 

 

Tang Zhai inscriptions (ceramic studio marks)

Ceramics in the Qing dynasty are marked with Tang Zhai inscriptions such as "中和堂 Zhonghe Tang" and "大雅斎 Dayazhai". "堂 Tang" refers to a reception room and " 斎 Zhai" means school or study room. also, the "軒 Xuan" of "古月軒 Guyue Xuan" can mean scholar or study room.
it is said that the imperial family inscription exists among these Tang Zhai inscriptions, and they are generally regarded as high-quality works of each dynasty. in addition to the imperial inscription, there is the Gugong palace name and individual inscriptions such as bureaucrats and poets, and through research we can determine dynasties in which the inscriptions were used.

 

順治帝年間 Shun zhi period (1643-1661)

zi sang xuan zhi 
百華齋
bai hua zhai 
梓桑軒製
ju1.jpg ju2.jpg




康熙帝年間 Kangxi period(1662-1722)

heng feng tang bo gu zhi  
恒丰堂博古製

jian shi tang        
儉師堂  

guang hou tang zhen wan zhi
光后堂珍玩製

ck1.jpg ck2.jpg ck3.jpg
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bi yu tang zhi
碧玉堂製

kang xi ren zi zhong tang zhi
康熙壬子中和堂製

zhao yu tang zhi
兆余堂製

ck4.jpg ck5.jpg ck6.jpg
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mei yu tang zhi
美玉堂製

quan qing tang fang gu zhi
全庆堂仿古製

ju xing/xing tang zhi
聚兴堂製

ck7.jpg ck8.jpg ck9.jpg
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shao wen tang zhi
紹聞堂製

yu ci chun yi tang zhi
御赐纯一堂製

jin yu tang zhi
金玉堂製

ck10.jpg ck11.jpg cz122.jpg
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yi de tang zhi
怡徳堂製

bai yun tang jing zhi
白云堂精製

xin yi tang
心逸堂

ck13.jpg cz14.jpg ck15.jpg
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kang xi gui chou zhong tang zhi
康熙癸丑中和堂製

lin yu tang zhi
琳玉堂製

ju xing tang zhi
聚兴堂製

ck16.jpg cz17.jpg cz18.jpg
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zheng yu tang zhi
正玉堂製

mei qing tang zhi
美慶堂製

ju yu tang zhi
聚玉堂製

cz19.jpg cz20.jpg ck21.jpg
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zhao yu tang zhi
兆裕堂製

yi yi tang zhi
怡怡堂製

shen de tang zhi
慎徳堂製

ck22.jpg ck23.jpg ck24.jpg
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yi you tang zhi
益友堂製

yu you tang zhi
裕友堂製

mei xu tang zhi
美旭堂製

ck25.jpg ck266.jpg ck26.jpg
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tian bao tang zhi
天宝堂製

guang yu tang zhi
光裕堂製

ding xing/xing tang zhi
鼎兴堂製

ck225.jpg ck226.jpg ck227.jpg
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shi jin tang zhi
世錦堂製

de xin tang zhi
徳馨堂製

yun xiu tang zhi
云休堂製

cv1.jpg cv2.jpg cv3.jpg
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zhao shi tang zhi
兆世堂製

ci bi tang zhi
瓷碧堂製

pei yu tang zhi
佩玉堂製

cv4.jpg cv5.jpg cv6.jpg
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yong yu tang zhi
永裕堂製

guang yu tang zhi
光裕堂製

hui yuan tang zhi
会元堂製

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lu yin tang qi
緑陰堂器

qing yin/yin tang zhi
清蔭堂製

shou gu zhai
寿古斎

cv101.jpg cv11.jpg kkk1.jpg 
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jin lan zhai zhi
金蘭斎製

ji ya zhai zhi
集雅斎製

zhi lan zhai zhi
芝欄斎製

kkk2.jpg kkk3.jpg kkk4.jpg
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yu ji sui
玉笈歳

wen xin zhai
問心斎

 fu xiang xuan yu qing zhi 
復香軒玉清製
kkk5.jpg kkk6.jpg  cv13.jpg
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 fu xiang xuan yu qing zhi 
復香軒玉清製
   
 cv14.jpg    

 

 

雍正帝年間 Yongzheng period (1723-1735)

yang he tang zhi   

养和堂製

dan ning tang zhi   
淡宁堂製

zheng shun tang zhi
正顺堂製

cv12.jpg yy1.jpg yy2.jpg
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hao ran tang zhi
浩然堂製

dan ran zhai
淡然齋

ji ya zhai zhi
集雅齋製

yy3.jpg yz1.jpg yz2.jpg
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zhuo cun zhai
拙存齋

da he zhai zhi 
大和齋製

de cheng zhai zhi
徳誠齋製

yz3.jpg yuz5.jpg yz6.jpg
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jing zhai wan ju 
静齋玩具

   
yz4.jpg    
     

 

乾隆帝年間 Qianlong period (1736-1795)

yang he tang zhi
養和堂製

yi shan tang zhi
一善堂製

ya yu tang zhi
雅雨堂製

kk1.jpg kk2.jpg vv3.jpg
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xu hua tang zhi
旭華堂製

cai hua tang zhi
彩華堂製

jing wei tang zhi
敬畏堂製

kk3.jpg

kk4.jpg

kk5.jpg

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dui mu tang zhi
敦睦堂製

cai run tang zhi
彩潤堂製

zhi yuan tang zhi
致遠堂製

kk6.jpg kk7.jpg kk8.jpg
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ban mu tang zhi
半亩堂製

cheng xin tang zhi
成信堂製

qi qian cao tang
欺千草堂

kk9.jpg kk10.jpg kk11.jpg
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cai xiu tang zhi
彩秀堂製

   
kk12.jpg    
     

 

嘉慶帝年間 Jiaqing period (1796-1820)

cai hua tang zhi
彩華堂製

qing yi tang zhi
慶宜堂製

yu qing tang zhi
玉慶堂製

kaka1.jpg kaka2.jpg kaka3.jpg
     

 

道光帝年間 Daoguang period (1820-1850)

xi qing tang zhi
錫慶堂製

shen de tang zhi             
慎徳堂製

dui ben tang zhi
敦本堂製

do1.jpg do2.jpg do3.jpg
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qiu qian tang zhi
求謙堂製

he shan tang zhi
賀善堂製

rui di tui si tang zhi
睿邸退思堂製

do4.jpg do5.jpg do6.jpg
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bao shan tang
宝善堂

ning dao tang zhi 
凝道堂製

tui si tang zhi
退思堂製

do7.jpg do8.jpg dd9.jpg
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ji qing tang zhi
積慶堂製

shi yan zhai zhi 
十硯齋制

 

dd11.jpg dd12.jpg  
     

 

光緒年間 Guangxu period (1875~1908)

yan qing tang zhi                                           
延慶堂製

da ya zhai
大雅斎

dd10.jpg koshi33.jpg

 

※Postscript

“寧晋斎ning jin zhai” goods for imperial household.
”寧遠斎ning yuan zhai” goods for imperial household.
“退思堂Tuisitang” owned by Quezhon, 6th generation grandchild of Duo er shuai.
“思慶堂 Si qing tang” owned by the jinshi Yinghe (jinshi: the status given to those who passed the imperial examination).
“謙牧堂Qian mu tang” owned by the Manchu Kui wen.
“塵定軒Chen ding xuan” owned by the Manchu Ji chang.
“拙存斎Zhuo cun zhai” owned by Shi pu.
“恩補堂en bu tang” owned by Panshi'en.
“雅雨堂Ya yu tang” name of the library belonging to Kangxi era jinshi Jian ceng. Ya yu was its number.
“中和堂製zhong huo tang zhi” owned by emperor Kangxi.
“旭華堂Xu hua tang” name of the library belonging to Kangxi era jinshi Wanghuanceng.
“謙牧堂Qian mu tang” name of the library belonging to the Kangxi era Manchu Kui wen.
“慎徳堂Shen Detang” it is understood that chinaware with the inscription was high-grade chinaware specially ordered by the imperial Prince and other nobility during the Kangxi through Daoguang eras. Shen Detang was the name of the lodging located in one corner of Yuanming Yuan Park, wherein emperor Daoguang spent his final years. it is thought that the pastel chinaware with a red “慎徳堂製Shen Detang Zi” inscription were containers ordered and created for emperor Daoguang to use at his palace.
“朗吟閣製lang yin ge zhi” goods for emperor Yongzheng before enthronemen.
“経筍堂Jing sun tang” name of the library belonging to Yongzheng era jinshi Lei kuang.
“経筍堂Jing sun tang” owned by the Yongzheng era jinshi Lei kuang.
“恭寿堂Gong shou tang” name of the library belonging to Gao sai, sixth child of Taizong, during the Yongzheng reign.
“彩華堂cai hua tang” it is thought that a private kiln of Qian longe emperor.
“楽善堂Le shan tang” name of the temple belonging to imperial prince Yi during the Qianlong era.
“敬思堂Jing si tang” owned by Qianlong era jinshi Liang guozhi.
“来鶴堂Lai he tang” name of the room belonging to Qianlong era jinshi Yu zong ying.
“椿蔭堂Chun yin tang” name of the library belonging to Qianlong era juren (person who passed the imperial regional examination held once every 3 years) Qian li bao.
“思慶堂Si qing tang” name of the library belonging to Qianlong era jinshi Yinghe.
“敬思堂Jing si tang” name of the library belonging to Qianlong era jinshi Liang guozhi.
“忠雅堂Zhongya tang” name of the library belonging to Qianlong era jinshi Jiangshiquan.
“思補堂Si bu tang” name of the library belonging to Qianlong era jinshi Panshi'en.
“塵定軒Chen ding xuan” name of the pavilion belonging to Jiaqing era juren Ji chang.
“有恒堂Youheng tang” owned by imperial Prince Qing during the Jiaqing through Daoguang eras.
“行有恒堂Xing youheng tang” owned by imperial Prince Qing during the Jiaqing through Daoguang eras.
“多福多寿堂Duo fu duo shou tang” owned by the Mongol Chong qi during the Daoguang era.
“大雅斎 Dayazhai” Porcelains painted with the mark are those which were ordered by Xitaihou (empress Dowager 1835-1908) herself, with dayazhai being the name of her living room in the palace. Xitaihou invested large sums in porcelain ware; it is said that these amounted to 128 gram of silver in the Guangxu period alone.
“長春宮” owdered by Xitaihou.
“儲秀宮” owdered by Xitaihou.
”玉海堂” owdered by Xitaihou.
“居仁堂Ju Rentang” it is the inscription found on chinaware made in Jingdezhen, specially ordered by the first president of the Republic of China, Yuan Shikai (1859-1916). The name derives from the name of his palace.
“静遠堂製jing yuan tang zhi“ ordered by president xu shi chang.

 

珠山八友 zhu shan ba you (eight modern artists of Jingdezhen)

Zhu is another name of Jingdezhen. Ceramic painting artists in the later Qing to the Republic of China period made new art scenes which mixed the traditional Chinese painting technique with the european famille rose style painting which was a major trend by that time.
in 1928, 8 very popular ceramic painting artists made 月園会Yueyuan Society and they passionately pursued modern ceramic painting. Their arts are very popular at the present time and being traded at high prices among ceramic art collectors.

 

王琦 Wangqi (1884-1937)

王Wan’s pseudonyms were 陶迷道人 Taomidaoren and 江西省新建人 Jiangxishengxinjianren.
When he was 17 years old, he started to learn ceramic art for a living at Jingdezhen. He studied painting technique under the ceramic painting artist 潘陶宇 Pantaoy. Throughout learning, famille rose portrait painting became Wan’s strong point. His work is characterized by its hearty brushwork and his painting style seems to be influenced by 黄慎 Huangshen who was a painter in the Qing era. He is the most praised among the eight persons of Jingdezhen. His studio was known as 陶陶齋 Taotaozhai.

s8-1.jpg

 

王大凡 Wangdafan (1888-1961)

王Wang began his career in Jingdezhen as a young man, and, over the course of roughly a half century, worked as a porcelain painter. He was a skilled painter of figure portraiture, landscapes, and nature scenes, and the originator of 落地粉彩 the landing pastel technique(paint with the color glass powder directly to the porcelain surface without white glass powder base)). in the early years of the Republic, he established the Jingdezhen Ceramics institute with 王琦Wangqi and others and held regular exhibitions. He also published many specialty newspapers and magazines, such as the Jingdezhen Craft Daily.
in 1915, the large porcelain portrait vase "富貴寿考fuguishoukao", which featured his painting, was chosen for first prize at the Panama–Pacific international exposition. His painting style is simple, and his brush work is delicate. at times, he offers up a peculiar style. in the era of the People's Republic of China, he served as the executive director of the Jingdezhen Porcelain artists association and the Jiangxi Provincial artists association.

s8-2.jpg

汪野亭 Wangyeting (1884-1942)

汪Wang entered the the Jiangxi Ceramics institute in 1906, where he studied under 潘淘宇Pantaoyu. He first specialized in nature scenes but later moved to landscapes and established the pastel green landscape technique. The compositions of his paintings mimic the masters known as the four kings of the early Qing dynasty, 王时敏Wangshimin, 王鉴Wangjian, 王翚Wanghui, and 王原祁Wangyuanqi. His work is characterized by its hearty brushwork and lustrous colors. His studio was known as 平山草堂pingshancaotang.

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程意亭 Chengyiting (1895-1948)

程Cheng's pseudonyms were 佩古齋Peiguzhai and 翥山樵子Zhushanqiaozi. He entered the Jiangxi Ceramics institute in Poyang in 1911, where he studied painting under 张暁耕Zhangxiaogeng and 潘勾宇Pangouyu. He later became a disciple of painter 程瑶生Chengyaosheng of the Shanghai Zhe school. He specialized in nature paintings. His compositions are unique and mix realism and exaggeration. He expresses the feel of bird feathers with exquisite brushwork. His painting style falls between that of 蒋南沙Jiangnansha and 恽南田Yunnantian.

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劉雨岑 Liuyucen (1904-1969)

劉Liu's pseudonyms were 澹湖渔Danhuyu and 六旬后号巧翁Liuxunhouhaoqiaoweng. in 1918, he entered the Jiangxi Provincial Jiazhong engineering and Ceramics School, where he studied painting under 潘勾宇Pangouyu. after marrying 朱秋霞Zhuqiuxia, daughter of Jingdezhen ceramicist 朱受之Zhushouzhi, he specialized in paintings of flora and fauna. He later became the adopted son of the great Jingdezhen ceramics painter 王琦Wangqi and worked with him in establishing the Porcelain arts Research institute and the 月園会Yueyuan Society.
in the Republic era, 劉雨岑Liuyucen worked as an instructor at the Fuliang County Pottery School, the Zhushan National Technical School for the Porcelain arts, and the Dongfang Technical School for the arts. His early style was extremely delicate. During and after his middle period, he painted nature scenes by studying one of the techniques in oriental painting 没骨 mei gu (where gradients are expressed in ink and pigment without using outlines) of painters such as 恽南田Yunnantian and 任伯年Renbonian. 劉雨岑Liuyucen's greatest achievement is surely his invention of the "water point" painting technique. The development of this technique allowed the so-called freehand style of Chinese painting to be worked into porcelain art. Works of his are kept in The Palace Museum.
in 1975, 劉雨Lliuyucen's son, 劉平Liuping, developed an improved version of the technique his father had invented, known as the "water point peach blossom" technique, and directed the designs for the Number 7501 中南海Zhongnanhai Porcelains, which are known as People's Republic guan ware.
When using the water point technique, it becomes possible to create soft, blurry, watercolor-like lines, even with pastels, and to create a light, bright pink color. Peach blossoms drawn using this pink color are known as "water point peach blossoms".

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徐仲南 Xuzhongnan (1872-1952)

徐Xu's pseudonyms were 竹里老人Zhulilaoren and 江西南昌人Jiangxinanchangren. in his youth, he studied porcelain painting at a Nanchang porcelain shop, and in 1918 he joined the Nanchang Ceramics Corporation where he worked as Manager of Porcelain arts. He excelled at decorating with pastels. He specialized in landscapes and had a particular touch for plant imagery. a member of the 月園会Yueyuan Society, his studio was known as 棲碧山館Qibishanguan.

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毕伯涛 Bibotao (1885-1961)

毕Bi's pseudonym was 黄山樵子Huangshanqiaozi. He studied painting under the artist 张雲山Zhangyunshan.
in the early years of the Republic, he began work in porcelain painting after moving to Jingdezhen to make a living and joining the 月園会Yueyuan Society at the invitation of 王琦Wangqi and 王大凡Wangdafan.
毕伯涛Bibotao focused on painting flower vases and tea trays. He painted birds such as crested mynas, mandarin ducks, and indian paradise flycatchers. although the only three colors he used were green, yellow, and black, his work is refined. His style falls within the 新羅山人xinluoshanren school. at the time he was not popular, and his works are extremely few.
Many of his students grew to become modern Jingdezhen ceramics artists, and among them his son 毕渊明Biyuanming is a representative figure of this period of Jingdezhen.

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田鶴仙 Tianhexian (1894-1952)

田Tian's pseudonyms were 梅华主人Meihuazhuren and 荒园老梅Huangyuanlaomei. His studio was known as 古石斋Gushizhai. in the early years of the Republic, the nearly middle-aged 田Tian began work in porcelain painting after an encounter with the Jingdezhen porcelain painting master 徐仲南Xuzhongnan. in his early period, he specialized in landscapes. His style changed markedly after he became a member of the late 月園会Yueyuan Society as he studied the plum portraits (images with plum trees as the subject) of the yuan dynasty artist 王冕Wangmian and took the lead in painting plum portraits on porcelain ware. His paintings of plum trees exerted a major influence on the course of modern Jingdezhen porcelain decoration.

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鄧碧珊 Dengbishan (1874-1930)

鄧Deng's pseudonyms were 铁肩子Tiejianzi and 江西余干人Jiangxiyuganren. a porcelain painter who excelled at underwater scenery, the influence of Japanese art can be seen in his paintings. His literary illustrations 詩書画印 (a traditional Chinese art form where a single subject is expressed through writing, ink wash images, and seal engraving) are also exceptional. a central figure in Jingdezhen.

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水点桃花 Water Point Peach Blossoms

in 1975, the Chinese Light industries Porcelain institute in Jingdezhen received instructions from the Central Guidance Ministry of Jiangxi province requesting the production of porcelain ware for 毛沢東Maozedong and ordering the creation of newly-designed porcelains to be used exclusively in 中南海Zhongnanhai (the location of the Central Guidance Ministry).
This project, as the most important of 1975, was dubbed "operation 7501" (with operation meaning Project in Chinese).
40 top class artisans of Jingdezhen applied their utmost skills for 毛沢東Maozedong, and the resulting 1000 items were sent to Beijing.
it is said that 毛沢東Maozedong particularly liked the stationery, smoking implements, tea ware, and dining ware, which were painted with red plum blossoms.
at present, the "毛沢東Maozedong's favorite peach and red plum blossom ware" made in this period have come to be called "water point peach blossoms".

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